## Explain BJT Transistor construction and working principle

Explain the working principle and construction of BJT Transistor and Symbol. A transistor can work as digital switch or an amplifier.

## Zener Voltage Pass Regulator Explained with Example

A Zener Diode is a special purpose diode used for voltage regulation in reverse bias. Zener diode work under breakdown region for typical operation. A minimum current of Zener knee current must be maintained to keep the voltage regulated.

## 3 Methods of testing a diode with multimeter and oscilloscope

Testing a diode with a digital multimeter in two ways, diode testing portion, and ohmmeter. A diode test is considered passed if it shows low resistance/voltage drop on forward bias and high resistance/voltage drop in reverse bias. A diode curve tracer uses an oscilloscope for VI characteristics graph.

## Diode Voltage Doubler Circuit with Tripler and Quadrupler Explained

Voltage Multipliers are electric circuits to increase the voltage by a factor of two, three or four in case of Voltage Doubler, Tripler or Quarple respectively. The Voltage multiplier circuit uses capacitors and resistors to enhance the voltage level.

## Forward Bias Diode and Reverse Bias Diode Characteristic Graph

A diode can be connected in forward and reverse bias with a source. In Forward bias connection, a diode conducts current like a closed switch. Where in reverse bias, a diode blocks current like an open switch.

## Difference between Alternating Current and Direct Current

Alternating current (AC) is the type of electrical current which changes its direction and magnitude every moment.

## How do Capacitors Add in Series: Capacitor in the Series Calculator

Capacitors can be connected in series to achieve the desired capacitance. The capacitance of series connection decreases and that of parallel connection increases.

## Difference between Ideal and practical, Voltage and Current Source

In contrast to a practical voltage source, an imaginary deal source provide constant voltage regardless of load current because of no internal resistance. While ideal current source provides a constant current regardless of load current.

## Voltage to Current Source Transformation Theorem

Source transformation or conversion is a technique to replace a voltage source with a current source for circuit simplification and vice versa.

## Thevenin Theorem and Example: The Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

According to Thevenin Theorem, a complex circuit is reduced to two resistor network, Thevenin Resistor, and Load resistor and a Thevenin Voltage source to avoid redundant computation to analyze a frequent changing resistor.