A regulated power supply needs to be designed for low input and output noise. The noise of the power supply can be reduced by selecting the right capacitor for your power supply. The size of a capacitor depends upon the amount of current of the load. You may use multiple capacitors in parallel for that purpose. In this article, we will learn how to choose capacitor value to filter power supply noise and EMI filters on the input to the power supply.
Choose Capacitor Value to Filter Power Supply
To power up the small electronics circuits, you may need DC voltage. While the whole distribution of power is in AC. Therefore, a power conversion from AC to DC is required. The process is called rectification and the circuit is called a rectifier.
The rectifier consists of either full-wave or half-wave rectifier. Every rectifier is made up of diodes. The output rectifier is pulsating DC (fluctuating DC) rather than pure DC. To purify the output of the rectifier a filter is needed. The filters can be formed from capacitors. An appropriate value of the capacitor is required for the suppression of the ripple voltage.
Use the following formula to choose a capacitor value to filter supply noise.
The current is the load current supplied by the capacitor to the load. Where Vrpp is the peak-to-peak value of the ripple voltage at the output. The theoretically infinite value of the capacitor will eliminate the ripple voltage.
Parameters for Selecting a Capacitor.
These are the parameter for selecting capacitors for the power supply. Considering these parameters concern the datasheet of the capacitor.
It tells about the maximum working DC or AC RMS voltage of the capacitor. The working voltage is valid for a certain voltage range.
It depends upon the manufacturer. They may state the ESR and ESL or ESL and Q-factor for calculating the resonant frequency.
It shows how the capacitance change with a temperature change. A small temperature coefficient is required so that the capacitance does not vary.
A filter capacitor in a DC circuit can help to find the polarity of the voltage by a polarized capacitor. But in the case of large AC power, the polarized capacitor becomes damaged.