Before diving into the applications and advantages of electricity distribution transformers, let us familiarize you with the appliance and its attributes. A distribution transformer is essentially an electrical isolation transformer that converts high-voltage electricity into relatively lower voltage levels that can be used both in homes and small commercial spaces. Understandably, the chief objective of a distribution transformer is to reduce the voltage and resultantly, render the primary and secondary sources with isolation by plummeting high-voltage distribution electricity to end-use levels.
For those of you who might not know, the voltage of the electric power, when sourced from a distribution substation, lies within the window of 4,000-36,000 volts which is too high for common uses. This is why the majority of the energy consumed by end-use appliances passes through at least one distribution transformer after being generated from its source. Ideally, electricity distribution transformers are segregated under three categories and they are based on the number of phases operating in the apartment (single-phase – 120 v or three-phase linen- 240 v), type of insulation (dry or liquid-immersed), and voltage level (low or medium).
The uses of electricity distribution transformers
Electricity distribution transformers are of two kinds – the ones that are ventilated and those that are enclosed. The windings of these transformers can either be of copper or aluminum and depending on their construction and the purpose they are meant to serve, the standard ratings can range from 50 VA to 750 kVA. Additionally, the distribution transformers are usually placed at a service drop where the electrical wires run from the power source directly into the customer’s premises. This recourse resorted when the peripheral settlements including pumping stations, farmyards, and isolated houses need to be supplied with power that is below 30KV. Other than this, distribution transformers are also utilized when the power supply has to be facilitated through overhead wires for railways functioning on AC.
Needless to say, the smaller transformers wouldn’t dissipate as much heat as their larger counterparts and therefore, are mostly fortified just with dry-tape. Because dry-tapes are less likely to catch fire, the diminutive distribution transformers are installed within confined spaces that are more vulnerable to starting a fire.
As far as the number of distribution transformers required in a particular area is concerned, the units would vary according to the number of the customers falling back on them for an uninterrupted and stable supply of electricity. For instance, in rural areas, each customer might necessitate being allotted with one distribution transformer while in the prime cities, several homes can smoothly rely on a single transformer. In contrast to this setting, humungous commercial buildings must be equipped with multiple distribution transformers just to be on the safer side of the spectrum.
Moreover, buildings that fall back upon the electric service delivered at primary distribution voltage have individual, customer-owned distribution transformers fitted in the basements to comply with the needs of voltage cutback. We are certain that you must have come across urban settlements that have primary electricity distribution lines running underground. These areas bank on pad-mount transformers that are securely locked in metal cabinets and positioned on concrete pads.